Немецкая овчарка: описание породы и видео обзор

Описание немецкой овчарки и характеристика породы
Немецкая овчарка – это преданный друг и смелый охранник, имеющий благородную внешность, гордую стать и добродушный характер. Перед тем, как решиться на приобретение собаки этой породы, не лишним будет иметь представление о ее природных особенностях.

Короткая характеристика

  • Рост: кобели достигают 60-65 см. в холке, суки не превышает 55-60 см.
  • Вес: кобели примерно 30-40 кг. Сука весит намного меньше -22-32 кг.
  • Окрас шерсти: черный, чепрачный, с серыми и рыжими подпалинами.
  • Длинна шерсти: Жесткошерстные собаки имеют короткий шерстяной покров с густым подшерстком. Длинношерстные покрыты мягкой, шелковистой шерстью, образующей пробор на спине.
  • Продолжительность жизни: в среднем живут 10-14 лет. Хотя зафиксированы случаи, когда немецкая овчарка при правильном уходе за ней достигала возраста 18-20 лет.
  • Достоинства породы: высокие интеллектуальные данные, восприимчивость к дрессировке, самоотверженность и бесконечную преданность хозяину.
  • Сложности воспитания: щенки немецкой овчарки нуждаются в постоянной потребности к движению и излишней бдительности.
  • Цена: стоимость щенка немецкой овчарки колеблется в среднем от 500 до 1500 долларов. Самым дорогим окажется чистокровный представитель породы – его цена не менее 2000 долларов.

История происхождения

Изначально, немецкая овчарка выводилась для пастуховБлагодаря трудам основателей Клуба любителей немецкой овчарки, который возглавлял Макс фон Штефаниц, в конце ХIХ на свет появилась собака, вобравшая в себя черты всех имеющихся на тот момент разновидностей породы. Этот усредненный тип немецкой овчарки быстрыми темпами начал завоевывать популярность среди заводчиков пастушьих собак. Немецкой овчаркой называлась собака, обитающая на территории Германии и обладающая совершенными физическими и психическими данными. В 1899 году произошел официальный показ этой породы на выставке в масштабах страны. Стандарты породы были несколько раз переписаны, начиная с 1899 года и заканчивая 1991 годом, и в конце 2010 года были утверждены окончательно. Длинношерстные овчарки были также признаны этой породой.

Во время Первой и Второй мировых войн немецкие овчарки бесстрашно бросались под пули, обнаруживали мины и защищали раненых воинов. Они были незаменимыми помощниками в разведке и были востребованы в армиях Антанты. Сейчас их используют, как охранников и поисковых собак в службах МВД.

Предназначение породы

Потребность в неутомимых, работоспособных помощниках в разных службах существовала всегда. Немецкая овчарка – универсальная собака, которая может быть и спортсменом, и ищейкой, и отличным охранником, и собакой — поводырем.

Немецкие овчарки широко используются в разных сферахОна охраняет стада животных, защищает хозяев от вторжения непрошеных гостей, находит запрещенные, тщательно спрятанные вещества в укромных местах, смело бросается на преступников. Поэтому спектр ее применения достаточно широк: ее используют на племенных выставках, в работах следственных органов, в пограничных службах, в армии и как пастушью собаку. Некоторые представители этой породы стали любимыми киногероями известных фильмов и сериалов.

Характер немецкой овчарки

Послушание, с которым немецкая овчарка выполняет команды хозяина, быстрое понимание того, что от нее хотят – приятно поражают. Собака терпеливо сносит щипки маленьких детей и «атаки» других домашних животных. Она очень умна и понятлива, поэтому с точностью выполнит то, что требует от нее хозяин.

Немецкая овчарка способна самоотверженно защищать человека, невзирая на то, что ей грозит смертельная опасность. Всегда будет рядом, когда он болен или его охватывает чувство тоски и одиночества. Поддержит игру детей, весело вместе с ними гоняя мяч и таская игрушки в зубах. Не подпустит к людям, которые ей дороги, чужаков без разрешения главного члена семейства. Всегда оповестит домочадцев о том, что в дом пытается кто-то войти. Любит движение и свежий воздух, поэтому с трудом переносит цепь и вынужденное нахождение в четырех стенах.

Видео обзор породы

Представленное видео наглядно продемонстрирует выдающиеся способности немецких овчарок. За годы работы в полицейских службах собака из верного напарника превращается в настоящего друга. Добродушный характер и способность к быстрому усвоению команд делает ее всеобщим любимцем в семье, решившейся на приобретение питомца. До конца своих дней овчарка преданно служит хозяину.

Выбор щенка

Необходимо обратить внимание на общий вид малыша. Не должно быть гнойных выделений из глаз, гнилостного запаха из ушей. Шерстка – блестящая и ровная на вид, без зачесов и проплешин. Веки при моргании должны плотно закрывать глазки. Слизистые – ярко-розовые, чистые, увлажненные, носик – холодный и влажный. Здоровый щенок имеет вид упитанного здоровячка, смотрит весело, и если скулит, то ясным, чистым голосом.

Передние конечности у здорового щенка хорошо развиты. Искривленные задние ноги могут говорить о наличии тяжелого заболевания – рахита. Лапки не должны разъезжаться – они у здорового питомца стоят компактно и хорошо держат своего обладателя на весу. Прикус – ножницеобразный. Детеныш должен иметь нормально развитый плечевой пояс, сильные широкие бедра, крепкую поясницу. Раздутый живот может указывать на глистную инвазию, если при этом щенок вялый, не включается в игру и безучастен к происходящему. Здоровый щенок весел, игрив и любопытен.

Уход и содержание

Немецкие овчарки хорошо поддаются дрессировкеНе стоит часто мыть щенка. Рациональным решением станет использование сухого шампуня. Частый контакт с водой приводит к тому, что исчезает естественная смазка на шерсти. Могут возникнуть экземы. Но купание в природных условиях не повредит питомцу, так как речная вода лишена химических реагентов. Плавание хорошо развивает мускулатуру, и мышечный корсет приобретает правильную, гармоничную форму.

Сначала щенка кормят не менее 5 раз в день, с 3-месячного возраста – 4 раза в день, с 7 месяцев достаточно 2 раз в день. После очередного кормления малыша нужно вывести на улицу и обязательно похвалить, если он сходил по нужде. Наказывать любимца без причины нельзя. Пожурить или дать легкий шлепок можно в момент проступка, после чего следует команда: «Гуляй», но при этом малыш не должен убегать от хозяина.

Рациональное питание, в которое включено не только мясо, но и овощи, фрукты, позволит питомцу расти крепким и здоровым. В зимнее время допускается употребление витаминных комплексов. У щенка всегда должна стоять емкость с чистой и свежей водой.

Коротко о дрессировке

Для дрессировки немецких овчарок используются разные методы:

  • Механический. Применяется болевое или механическое воздействие
  • Контрастный. Контрастный способ сочетает в себе разные методы
  • Вкусопоощрительный. После выполненной команды щенок поощряется лакомыми кусочками еды.
  • Подражательный. Щенок смотрит на поведение взрослых представителей своей породы и подражает им.

Щенку нужно определить постоянное место для отдыха, куда следует постелить небольшой коврик или циновку. К месту малыша можно приучать, перекладывая его после того, как он, утомившись после игры, прилег отдохнуть. При этом нужно приговаривать: «Место, место..»

Щенков немецкой овчарки нужно обучать с раннего возрастаС раннего возраста щенок должен обучаться командам: сначала самым простым из них: «Сидеть», «Дай лапу», «Ко мне» и пр. Во время прогулки любимец не должен дергать поводок, увлекая хозяина туда, куда ему вздумается. В качестве поощрения используются вкусные кусочки пищи. Щенок грызет все, что попадает ему в рот. Нужно купить специальную игрушку и при попытке питомца укусить обувь или провода в доме ее нужно подталкивать к питомцу на близкое расстояние.

Достоинства и недостатки породы

Собака прекрасно адаптируется к новым условиям и обладает большим количеством рабочих качеств. К плюсам породы можно отнести:

  • Высокие интеллектуальные способности и быструю обучаемость.
  • Хорошо развитую интуицию, физическую силу и выносливость в экстремальных условиях.
  • Неприхотливость и непривередливость. Немецкая овчарка отлично адаптируется к новым условиям, одинаково крепко спит как на уютном коврике, так и на лоне природы.Ест ту пищу, которую даст хозяин.

К немногим недостаткам можно отнести:

  • Излишнюю агрессивность при неправильном отношении.
  • Большое количество выпадающей шерсти.
  • Требование внимания к своей персоне.
Хотелось бы поинтересоваться у заводчиков и любителей этой породы: как вам удается поддерживать здоровое состояние и хорошее настроение у вашего любимца?

 

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